This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the social-scientific study of population. Beginning with a discussion of the significance of changing demographic patterns within nation-states and in the global context, we consider the development of population science and major theories of demographic change. Special attention is given to “the demographic transition” and the causes and consequences of population growth in developed and developing countries. In understanding population dynamics, we focus on basic aspects of demographic structure and composition and analyze their implications for ethnic, gender, class and inter-generational relations. In particular, we analyze the role of the state in formulating and implementing population policy, especially in relation to fertility, which is in turn influenced by marriage and the formation of families and households. Population growth and distribution are also studied in relation to immigration, aging and mortality.